present, the community of persons with disabilities who have a hearing problem
asks to be called teman Tuli. The use
of name is not without reason, various references that convey arguments are
exposed from various sources, such as the Big Indonesian Language Dictionary (Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia), articles
in the media, and journalistic writing.
public, the terms of teman Tuli (with
‘T’ capital letters) and tuna rungu are
considered to have ownership of meaning. While in the end, the two terms have
differences. What is also not well known is that the term of Tuli (with ‘T’ uppercase letters) turns
out to be different from the term of tuli
(with ‘t’ lowercase letters). To enrich our knowledge, there are terms of
person with disabilities that connected with a hearing issue.
Tuli / Deaf (with ‘T’ a capital letter)
In the Big Indonesian language Dictionary (KBBI), deaf
with lowercase and deaf with uppercase apparently have a different meaning. If
we type the word ‘tuli’ or ‘Tuli’ in KBBI, the two definitions emerge:
- a tidak dapat mendengar (karena rusak pendengarannya);
(can’t hear because of hearing loss); deaf
- (dengan huruf besar) tidak bisa mendengar dan menggunakan
bahasa isyarat untuk berkomunikasi
(in capital letters) cannot hear and using a sign language to communicate
For the deaf community, the use of the term of Tuli (with capital letters’ T) is
considered better than tuli (with ‘t’
lowercase letters). Why? Because writing Tuli
with ‘T’ capital letter, at the same time shows the identity of the deaf as a
group of people who have an identity, have a sign language, and its own
‘Teman Tuli’ (Deaf friend)
The term of teman
Tuli (with ‘T’ capital letter) is a term that used today by the deaf community.
Regarding the meaning of Tuli (with ‘T’ capital letter), the term of teman Tuli (with ‘T’ capital letter) shows the identity
of a group that they are a proud to have a sign language and not embarrassing
to communicate with teman dengar / friend
to hear (a term for people who can hear).
Teman Tuli believes that
there is nothing to distinguish between them and ‘friend to hear’, all they can
do except to hear. When ‘friend to hear’
speak by voice, teman Tuli uses a
sign language. That is called a various of culture.
‘tuli’ (with ‘t’
term of tuli (with t lowercase
letters) is defined as a person who has a hearing loss referring to a medical
model, and the meaning is the same as hearing impaired. The Deaf community
argues that the term of tuli (with‘t’
lowercase letter) is the same meaning that they are no longer moving towards to
social and human rights models.
term of tuli (with‘t’ lowercase
letter) derived from the medical model has an explanation. The term of tuli (with‘t’ lowercase letter) is a
conductive hearing loss which is a hearing loss caused by abnormalities in the
external ear and / or middle ear. Here is some hearing loss:
• Nerve or sensorineural hearing loss is a hearing loss due
to damage to the auditory nerve, even though there is no interference in the
outer or middle ear.
• Mixed Hearing Disorders, which are disorders that are a
mixture of the two types of hearing disorders mentioned above, in addition to
experiencing abnormalities in the outer and middle ear also suffer from hearing
Budaya Tuli (Deaf Culture)
Each community group has its own culture as well as the
Deaf as a minority group also has a different culture from the hearing people
(non-Deaf). However, even as a minority they also have the same cultural
elements as the majority (non-deaf), such as: language, history, values,
behavioral systems, belief systems, traditions, social systems, struggles and arts.
The origins of culture in people’s lives certainly cannot
be separated from the history of why such things exist and can occur. The same
is true of the Deaf culture in Indonesia. The history of the Deaf is always
attached to and introduces the Deaf culture itself.
The history of the Deaf is also poured into literary
forms such as: poetry created from the reflection of the Deaf experience,
classifier stories, stories using the alphabet and numbers in sign language,
and narration. The tradition in the Deaf group is almost the same as the
listening group, namely: get-togethers from the young to the old still often
gather, sports activities, narrators, art, etc.
Tuna rungu (hearing impairment)
In the big Indonesian Language Dictionary (KBBI), hearing
impairment means hearing loss and is considered better, smoother, polite, and
formal. Tuna rungu has the same
meaning as ‘tuli’ (with lowercase letter).
Based on the background, the term of tuna rungu is a term of medical approach that it was mentioned by
doctors in the sense of a person whose hearing is damaged.
In addition, the medical approach that has been used tends
to optimize a hearing ability in the various ways in the purposing of resembling
to those who can hear. For the Deaf Community, this is considered contrary to
respect of cultural diversity, namely, the Deaf culture.
Teman dengar (friend to hear)
Teman dengar are those who
cannot talk with teman Tuli (deaf
friend). Teman Tuli are those who
cannot speak, but they are communicating with a sign language. In term of cultural
respect, it is an obligation to all to learn a sign language.
So, now we already know the distinction
of term for people with hearing problem. Which once that we must use it? ‘Tuli’
with ‘T’ capital letter is the term they really want.